Low-Carbon Blue
Ammonia Facility
in Ingleside

Project Fast Facts

Project YaREN is a joint venture between Enbridge and Yara.

The name “YaREN” is a combination of the two company names. ‘Ren’ is also the Norwegian word for ‘clean’, a reflection of the low-carbon process also known as blue ammonia, being implemented at the facility.


The proposed ammonia production facility, to be located at the Enbridge Ingleside Energy Center (EIEC), represents a significant development for Ingleside and surrounding communities. The project will file permit applications for two production units, sometimes called trains, with a total production capacity of up to 2.8 million metric tons (MMT) of ammonia per year, with project start-up anticipated from 2028 – 2030.


The construction of any facility will be subject to receipt of all necessary regulatory approvals. In all of our operations, Enbridge and Yara aim to be good neighbors and stewards of the community by making the safety of our employees and community members our top priority, fostering job creation and investments that serve the community, and maintaining transparency in our communication about the project.

Ammonia Safety

100 years of ammonia safety
and experience

Financial Support

Millions of dollars in property
taxes to support roads,
schools and more

Job Creation

Up to 4,000 construction jobs
Up to 200 permanent jobs
once operational

Carbon Capture

Capture 95% carbon dioxide
from production

Explore the Facility

For illustrative purposes only. The content developed for this rendering is related to the Project’s scope as of June 2024 and may change as the Project evolves.

1. Ammonia Production Facility

Two identical blue ammonia trains (units)

Total production capacity of up to 8,000 metric tons per day  (up to 2.8 million metric tons per year)

Capturing up to 95% of carbon dioxide emissions during the production process

2. Ammonia Pipeline

The low-carbon ammonia will be transported in an above-ground pipeline to double-wall storage tanks, in its cold and liquid form.

3. Double-wall Ammonia Tanks

The low-carbon ammonia will be stored in double-wall ammonia tanks in its cold and liquid form.

4. Ammonia Loading System

The low-carbon ammonia will be loaded, in its cold and liquid form, onto dedicated ammonia vessels for export.

Two identical blue ammonia trains (units)

Total production capacity of up to 8,000 metric tons per day  (up to 2.8 million metric tons per year)

Capturing up to 95% of carbon dioxide emissions during the production process

The low-carbon ammonia will be transported in an above-ground pipeline to double-wall storage tanks, in its cold and liquid form.

The low-carbon ammonia will be stored in double-wall ammonia tanks in its cold and liquid form.

The low-carbon ammonia will be loaded, in its cold and liquid form, onto dedicated ammonia vessels for export.

Project Phases

The content developed for this diagram is related to the project’s scope as of June 2024 and may change as the project evolves.

Each year, millions of dollars will be generated in property tax revenues to help with road improvements, pay teacher salaries, maintain school buildings and fund a host of other city and county services that improve local and regional quality of life.

View Economic Impact Summary

Safety and Our Community

The project’s design leverages the industry’s 100 years of continuous improvements in process safety as well as Yara’s century-long experience and approach — developing, operating and continuously enhancing ammonia facilities globally — which enabled safe operations at multiple facilities for over a decade.

Upcoming Events

Producing ammonia for a century

Ammonia is a stable chemical compound, produced mainly for crop nutrition in support of the global food supply. One of the most produced inorganic chemicals worldwide, Yara has safely produced ammonia for a century. 


Low-carbon ammonia, or blue ammonia, is a production method that produces up to 95% fewer carbon emissions than traditional ammonia production. In the proposed Project YaREN, the carbon captured will be transported and stored in a geologic formation in South Texas.

Enbridge + Yara

Yara is a global industry leader in ammonia development, production, operations and distribution, while Enbridge has large-scale infrastructure development expertise and world-class deep-water docks and export platform at the existing EIEC facility.

Project FAQs

Select a category from the list below to view frequently asked questions and answers related to the Project. The content developed in this FAQ is related to the Project’s scope as of June 2024 and may change as the Project evolves.

Project YaREN will produce blue ammonia. Blue ammonia is produced using a process that emits up to 95% less carbon than traditional production methods. The CO2 that would otherwise be emitted during production is instead captured and transported via pipeline off-site for subsequent injection and underground storage, also called carbon capture and sequestration. Natural gas will be the feedstock for ammonia production.

The targeted in-service timeline for the Project is 2028-2030. The Project has yet to start Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) and anticipates these activities to begin in early 2025.

Project YaREN will file permit applications for a total production capacity of up to 2.8 million metric tons per annum of ammonia. One production unit of ammonia, or train, will have a capacity of up to 1.4 million metric tons per annum.

The Project investment to build a unit, or train, of up to 1.4 million metric tons per annum is in the range of US $2.6–$2.9 billion.

The Project plans to use the existing docks at berths 4 and 5.

The ammonia will be exported by marine vessel for use in the production of fertilizers, various industrial applications and new market segments for shipping fuel, power production, and ammonia as hydrogen carrier. Yara will be the primary off taker of the produced volumes.

We are committed to ongoing community involvement throughout the Project lifecycle including design, permitting, construction and operations of the Project. Our current priority is sharing Project information and answers to the concerns of the community.

We are engaging with our community neighbors through regular updates in person and online where we will share more information, receive community input, and answer any questions.

We have established a website, phone number and email address to ensure we have community engagement as the Project is developed.

There are about 30 plants operating in the U.S. that are similar to Project YaREN in that they produce ammonia from natural gas feedstock using the Haber-Bosch process.

Project YaREN will produce blue ammonia. Blue ammonia is produced using a process that emits up to 95% less carbon than traditional production methods. The CO2 that would otherwise be emitted during production is instead captured and transported via pipeline off-site for subsequent injection and underground storage, also called carbon capture and sequestration. Natural gas will be the feedstock for ammonia production.

“Gray,” “blue,” and “green” ammonia are all the same chemical composition product, with the color referring only to the extent to which CO2 emissions are released, captured, or avoided during the ammonia production process.

Natural gas is piped in, mixed with steam, and heated. It goes into the Auto Thermal Reformer (ATR), where oxygen is added to form hydrogen and CO2 . The CO2 is captured and transported by pipeline to offsite permanent storage. Then hydrogen is combined with Nitrogen and is sent to the synthesis converter, creating blue ammonia (low carbon ammonia). The produced ammonia is cooled and stored in its cold liquid form.

A new CO2 pipeline will be built by a third party from the ammonia facility in Ingleside to the selected CO2 storage site. YaREN is still in the process of evaluating the proposed storage operators, CO2 storage facility locations, and pipeline routes. These final locations will be announced after the pipeline and storage operator has been selected.

The Project included in its air permit application calculations that estimate, as a contingency, the possibility for gray ammonia production for up to 180 days (about 6 months) after the initial startup of each of the two production units and for up to 90 days (about 3 months) per year. This contingency is in the event that the third-party CO2 pipeline has service unavailability.

Once operational, the facility will be regulated by multiple state and federal agencies, including Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

No. Project YaREN will not be producing ammonium nitrate.

Project YaREN will produce anhydrous ammonia, which is a very different industrial chemical than ammonium nitrate.

No, Project YaREN will only be producing blue ammonia—not blue hydrogen as a product. When Enbridge first announced this Project in May 2022, it had a different commercial partner and considered blue hydrogen production as a component of the Project. Following market changes and a change in commercial partners to Yara Clean Ammonia, the scope of the Project has changed, focusing on the production of blue ammonia only.

Project YaREN is different from the proposed Nueces Green Ammonia project in Robstown for a few reasons:

  • Project YaREN will be located within an existing industrial complex at Enbridge’s Ingleside Energy Center. The Project will utilize existing terminal infrastructure for ammonia logistics, including marine export.
  • Producing blue ammonia involves an established and proven process with a mature safety profile for large scale ammonia production.
  • The blue ammonia production process has a lower electrical power and water supply demand than required for green ammonia production.
  • Project YaREN is developing its own water supply from Corpus Christi Bay and will not draw freshwater from local municipalities to support any of its process water needs.

Ammonia plays an important role in our society today. It is the main feedstock of fertilizer production, and fertilizers provide plants with the nitrogen they need to grow, making sure people around the world have food on the table. Blue ammonia allows for the fertilizer industry to decarbonize, reducing its carbon footprint in the process. 

Ammonia also offers exciting future applications. New markets are expected to develop over the coming decades for ammonia as a hydrogen carrier, as a fuel for the power industry, and as a transport fuel, particularly in the maritime industry.

Ammonia can ignite under very specific conditions, however those specific conditions will not be present at this facility. Those conditions include confinement combined with high energy ignition sources, which are not part of this Project’s design. Therefore the risk of ammonia at this facility exploding is extremely low.

The risk of explosion at the YaREN facility is extremely low. The use of natural gas and hydrogen in the ammonia production process is what could generate an incident, but those materials will not be stored on site. Further, once the hydrogen is transformed into ammonia, any risk of explosion is extremely low.

In every step of this Project’s development, from planning to our daily operations, our first priority is the safety of our employees and the community members. This includes a variety of measures that go above and beyond industry and governmental safety regulations and requirements, including three layers of independent pressure control systems on ammonia storage tanks, full double-walled ammonia containment storage tanks with vapor recovery systems, and an immediate ammonia leak detection at our ammonia storage facility and key locations throughout the production site.

Our dedicated environmental, health and safety team at the facility will also perform regular reviews and audits of the operations. All process parameters such as pressure, temperature and flow will be continuously monitored electronically from an on-site control room, staffed 24/7.

Additionally, thorough emergency response plans will be in place for the facility and community at the time of commissioning to ensure proper notification and safety measures.

In the last 20 years in the U.S., there have been no incidents resulting in off-site injuries at ammonia production facilities using similar processes to Project YaREN. Ammonia has been produced for more than 100 years using the same basic chemical process, and during that time continuous improvements in engineering and safety have been systematically implemented across the industry.

In addition to the many independent layers of safety, monitoring and preparedness at Project YaREN, ammonia is a well-established and safe industry globally. Ammonia is the second-most manufactured chemical in the world, and Yara is one of the most experienced ammonia producers globally with an excellent safety record and extensive knowledge of the production process.

The ammonia will be transported in its cold and liquid state, which is key to ensuring the safety of our employees and our neighbors.

Facility piping will route ammonia through the plant—this is the safest way to transport ammonia. While in the facility, the ammonia will be stored in double-walled tanks with vapor-recovery. Then, the pipelines will carry the product to ships—all within our facility.

The ammonia will then be exported from the facility to customers in bulk on large ships the same way it is stored: as a liquid at cold temperatures and at regular atmospheric pressure. It will not be shipped via railroad tanks or trucks. At no point will the product go through the community—or interact with the public.

At the time of commissioning, emergency response plans will be in place for the facility and the community. These plans will be developed in collaboration with local emergency responders and subject matter experts. Facility personnel and specialized third-party emergency response teams will be trained and equipped with the necessary materials in the unlikely event of an incident. During construction, contractors will also be required to have emergency response plans in place that at a minimum meet all required safety regulations.

All processes parameters such as pressure, temperature, and flow will be continuously monitored from an on-site control room, staffed 24/7 with authorized access only. The highly trained control room personnel will monitor equipment both electronically and in-person—and respond according to protocol if changes occur outside of specified ranges.

The plant is designed with a safety system to automatically shut down equipment if preset measurements are exceeded. The performance of critical equipment is also monitored to maximize equipment integrity.

At the time of commissioning, emergency response plans will be in place for the facility and the community. These plans will be developed in collaboration with local emergency responders and subject matter experts. Facility personnel and specialized third-party emergency response teams will be trained and equipped with the necessary materials in the unlikely event of an incident.

Once operational, the facility will be regulated by multiple state and federal agencies, including Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and it will comply with numerous safety standards set forth by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and American Petroleum Institute (API).

The majority of water accessed by Project YaREN, approximately 75%, will be returned to the bay and not come into contact with the ammonia process. Total water inlet from the bay is expected to be approximately 79 million gallons per day with approximately 59 million gallons returned per day. Water returned to the bay will be in accordance with stringent standards for protecting marine life and opportunities in the bay. The Project will not use any municipal water for ammonia production.

Project YaREN will not access your drinking water for plant operations. We are proposing to use seawater sourced from the La Quinta Channel of the Corpus Christi Bay system for the facility’s recirculating cooling and heating systems. Approximately 75% of that water will be returned to the bay in accordance with stringent standards for protecting marine life and activities.

Desalination will not be used for the majority of our operations. Approximately 90% of the seawater accessed for the ammonia production process will not be purified or desalinated, nor will it come into contact with ammonia. Instead, this water will run through cooling towers then be returned to the bay in accordance with stringent standards for marine life and activity. The remaining 10% of water will undergo purification on-site to be used in the facility’s boiler steam system and internal consumption.

The ammonia process is expected to generate low volumes of routine wastewater, primarily from boiler feedwater treatment, blowdown and storm water that comes into contact with equipment. These waters will be treated in the on-site wastewater treatment plant to remove impurities and will be returned to the bay after treatment, in accordance with the Project’s wastewater discharge permit.

No, we have no plans to pursue a fire water permit for Project YaREN. Any fire water needed for emergency response will be sourced from our on-site water storage.

The facility will operate within the strict air quality, water quality, safety and other environmental standards set by federal and state agencies, including the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

To protect seagrass and other aquatic resources, Project YaREN plans to implement engineered diffuser systems for discharges to minimize the velocity of the water as it reenters the bay system. Further, YaREN will strategically position discharge systems away from the seagrasses, in areas that minimize water velocity and scour effects that could reach any nearby seagrass beds.

We are taking significant steps to minimize any potential impact to both coastal erosion and seagrass. To protect seagrass and other aquatic resources, Project YaREN plans to implement fully engineered diffuser systems for discharges to minimize the velocity of the water as it reenters the bay system. Further, YaREN will strategically position discharge systems away from seagrasses, in areas that minimize water velocity and scour effects that could reach any nearby seagrass beds.

As Project YaREN is being developed at an existing industrial complex at the Enbridge Ingleside Energy Center with best engineering and environmental practices, the Project will be protective of wildlife and the environment. Air and water permitting and corresponding discharge dispersion modeling will consider wildlife and human populations in the area.

Marine life protection is also paramount. In-water structures are being designed to meet rigorous environmental standards and will avoid sensitive marine life habitats such as seagrass beds.

The facility will operate within the strict air quality, water quality, safety and other environmental standards set by federal and state agencies, including the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE).

Project YaREN strives to be a good steward of the environment, including protecting air quality in the community. The Project will work with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) to incorporate applicable state and federal regulatory requirements and additional voluntary controls into the Project’s design, related construction and operating permits.

The proposed ammonia Project at Ingleside is currently undergoing an extensive modeling and permitting process that puts community health and safety first. An important part of this effort is identifying and designing the control and monitoring systems that manage air emissions.

To obtain the air permit, the Project is demonstrating our air quality protection measures to the TCEQ through emissions estimation methods and air dispersion modeling techniques mandated and approved by TCEQ and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

These regulators have developed very low allowable thresholds against which the Project’s predicted air quality impact is compared. These thresholds consider the emission type and quantity, proximity to neighborhoods and schools, local weather patterns, and more.

To obtain its air permit, Project YaREN will also include air emissions controls that are considered Best Available Control Technology (BACT). For some emissions sources, Project YaREN will voluntarily implement controls that are even more stringent than BACT as part of our commitment to protecting the community’s air quality.

Local residents should not be able to smell ammonia from this facility during daily operations due to the extremely low concentrations of ammonia present outside of contained systems like tanks and pipelines. Using regulator-approved modeling methods and data, we currently estimate that at the fence line, ammonia concentrations associated with routine plant operations will be no more than the equivalent of 1 tablespoon in an entire Olympic-sized swimming pool of water. This is less than 0.1 percent of a highly sensitive person’s ability to smell ammonia.

Our commitment to air quality won’t stop once permits are granted, and it won’t stop at the fence line. Once operational, the Project will incorporate process and emissions unit monitoring to provide early indication to our teams if these levels start to drift outside of our normal zones.

Think of this like your car – the emissions control system is constantly gathering data in your engine from temperature to oxygen and fuel, and if those data fall outside of acceptable zones, your check engine light alerts you to evaluate the system well in advance of an exhaust problem.

In addition to the process and emissions monitoring described above, we will conduct monitoring within the plant in compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards to ensure safe working conditions. That monitoring will provide an early warning of an unintended release before it has the potential to go off site.

TCEQ manages the state and federal air monitoring network in the Coastal Bend. This network informs the public and regulatory agencies of the region’s air quality, helping both stakeholders and regulators plan and take action if air quality trends raise concern.

We are committed to ongoing community involvement throughout the design, permitting and operations of the Project. Our current priority is sharing Project information and answers that the community has requested.

We will engage with our neighbors through regular updates in person and online where we will share more information, receive community input, and answer questions.

We have established a website, phone number and email address to ensure we have community engagement as the Project is developed.

Project YaREN will be a significant employer for residents of Ingleside and surrounding communities. The facility will create up to 200 permanent jobs once operational, equivalent to $15-20 million in annual wages, and employ up to 4,000 people at the peak of construction. In addition, there will be many permanent jobs associated with services to the facility.

Project YaREN is not seeking tax abatements. We value this community and will be investing in your schools, hospitals, roads and parks through various taxes including property tax, sales-and use tax and corporate income tax. The total expected tax revenue from this Project for the City of Ingleside, San Patricio County and Ingleside Independent School District over three years of construction is $60-80 million, and more than $1 billion over 30 years once operational.

Enbridge’s existing infrastructure in Texas, connectivity to affordable supply of natural gas, and the Enbridge Ingleside Energy Center (EIEC), which currently has the required undeveloped land needed within its existing boundary and available maritime facilities for exporting, make it the ideal location for this Project. In addition:

  • EIEC can handle the ammonia vessels required.
  • The Corpus Christi channel is less congested with vessel traffic compared to many other waterways along the U.S. Gulf Coast capable of handling the required vessels.
  • EIEC’s existing relationships include a designated tug service provider that is quick, efficient, and exceptionally trained in operations and emergency response to safely guide vessels in and out of the Port.
  • The geology in South Texas enables permanent storage for carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted into the atmosphere.

During normal operations, noise should not be audible. We will operate in compliance with all applicable noise standards and will have more information as we complete the engineering study in 2025.

Project YaREN and third-party experts have extensively studied potential risks of the ammonia facility (for example an ammonia release, fire, explosion). Using conservative assumptions, these experts have calculated the risk of incidents in the Ingleside community to be extremely low.

The Ingleside Primary School is located about two miles north of the planned site—four times further away than the distance already considered safe by experts. To protect the safety of students and the community, Project YaREN is proactively adding extra safety features that exceed government standards, including:

  • Triple independent pressure control systems on ammonia tanks
  • Double-walled tanks with systems to recover vapors
  • Advanced leak detection instruments at the production site

By implementing these and other reliable safety measures, the risk of incidents or harm is extremely low.

The proposed site for Project YaREN is on approximately 130 acres of the Ingleside Energy Center’s grounds, north and east of the existing Enbridge Ingleside Oil Terminal. There will be a wooded buffer zone between the neighboring community and the plant, to help shield from visibility all but the tallest structures associated with the operation.

During construction, machinery may be visible entering and exiting the facility. Then, during commissioning and start-up, steam that looks like a white cloud will be temporarily vented from several of the stacks, and hydrocarbon and ammonia generated during startup operations will be temporarily flared.

Once startup is complete, the flares will maintain pilot lights, like on a home furnace, but they are not anticipated to routinely flare process gases. The facility will have two primary flare structures on the northern portion of the site that will be used to start up the facility and to control other non routine process conditions.

There also will be a flare near the ammonia storage tanks in the southern portion of the Project area to assist in tank commissioning and control other non-routine tank and loading conditions. As the engineering study progresses, we will have more information to share with the public about these structures.

YaREN plans to contract CO₂ pipeline and storage operators to transport the CO₂ from the proposed ammonia facility and store it at an underground geologic storage site in South Texas outside of Ingleside and San Patricio County. The specific location of the CO₂storage site will be announced after a storage site operator has been selected.

A new CO2 pipeline will be built by a third party from the ammonia facility in Ingleside to the selected CO2 storage site in South Texas. YaREN is still in the process of evaluating the proposed storage operators, CO2 storage facility locations, and pipeline routes. These final locations will be announced after the pipeline and storage operator has been selected.

The CO2 will be permanently stored in underground rock formations by a CO2 operator that YaREN selects. A comprehensive underground and surface monitoring system will be put into place by the third-party CO2 operator to make sure that the CO2 stays permanently underground, as required by the permits required to operate CO2 sequestration wells.

No, the CO2 will not be stored in a salt dome. The CO2 will be stored at an underground geologic storage facility by a CO2 storage operator that YaREN selects.

The CO2 storage operators being evaluated are planning to store CO2 in deep saline formations that are comprised of sandstones. Directly above these sandstones are caprocks—thick and continuous shale formations—that permanently seal the CO2 injected into the sandstone formations below. These caprocks and stringent well operations requirements also ensure that the CO2 will not leak into any underground sources of drinking water.

Typically, CO2 storage in underground sandstone and other rock formations occurs at depths of at least 3,000 feet below the surface (over half a mile). YaREN is currently in the process of selecting a CO2 storage contractor to store the CO2 from the ammonia facility. Each operator under consideration has proposed a storage facility with unique depths, but CO2 storage will likely occur at depths of a mile or more deep, with a thick sequence of seals and other rocks overlying the storage to prevent leaks to the surface and protect underground sources of drinking water. At these depths, the injected CO2 will be in a dense (near liquid) phase which will limit the area required for storage.

The process of producing ammonia creates CO2 emissions that are ordinarily released into the air, similar to a car releasing emissions from its tailpipe or a power plant releasing emissions from burning natural gas. YaREN will capture these emissions, and the selected CO2 storage contractor will permanently store most of the CO2 emissions so that they are not released into the atmosphere.

The selected third-party CO2 contractor will transport the CO2 emissions from the ammonia plant to a separately located CO2 storage site. Here, the CO2 will be injected into deep underground rock formations and permanently stored. Underground, the CO2 is trapped in place by a thick caprock that seals it in place. Over time, the CO2 will remain there in a dense phase (near-liquid), with some of it mineralizing into the rocks.

YaREN wants to do its part to help reach “net-zero” CO2 emissions in the future. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO2 is one way to reduce the facility’s CO2 emissions. CCS is also being considered by other industries, such as power production, steel mills, cement factories and refining facilities as a technology to reduce the negative impact of CO2 and other greenhouse gases.

Due to its importance in helping reduce CO2 emissions, the federal government is providing considerable support and regulatory changes for CCS to support energy transition projects. This support is contained in the recently passed Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (IRA) as well as in the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law of 2021. These two pieces of legislation represent the largest climate/energy-related investment in our country’s history and the largest reinvestment in our country’s infrastructure in generations.

CO2 occurs naturally and is also produced from human activities. Plants do need CO2 to live and certain businesses and manufacturers need and use CO2 , such as for making carbonated drinks like Coke and Pepsi. Yes, CO2 can be beneficial, but too much CO2 in the atmosphere can have negative impacts on the climate.

CO2 capture technology began in the U.S. as early as the 1920’s when companies needed to separate CO2 (considered an impurity) from produced natural gas at their gas processing plants. More recently, capture technology has been applied to other industries, such as power production and manufacturing.

CO2 has been injected and stored underground in the U.S. for over 50 years. Since the 1970’s, oil companies have been injecting CO2 into old oil fields to recover more oil. This is still happening in many places in West Texas, as well as in Louisiana, Mississippi, Wyoming, and Montana, helping build a sound base of CO2 transportation and injection expertise. Carbon storage in non-oilfield settings started in Norway in the late 1990’s. Multiple CCS pilot projects have occurred in the US starting in the 2000’s, with the first large non-oilfield CCS project beginning in Illinois in 2017. Overall, millions of tons of CO2 have already been safely stored for decades in deep, underground geologic formations.

The monitoring requirements for a CCS project start before injection into underground rock formations begins. In Texas, CO2 storage operators must obtain an approved Class VI injection well and storage facility permit from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The requirements for monitoring the stored CO2 are outlined in EPA’s Underground Injection Control (UIC) program, which has the directive to protect drinking water and ensure CO2 is permanently stored.

The monitoring requirements for a Class VI injection well and storage site permit include pressure monitoring, fluid sampling, CO2 plume tracking, and a variety of underground leak-detection monitoring wells, among others.

After CO2 is captured at the ammonia plant, it will be transported by a third-party pipeline to a geologic storage site for secure and permanent storage by a CO2 storage operator that YaREN selects. Transporting CO2 by pipeline is safe and is highly regulated and monitored. Under U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) regulations, CO2 pipelines must adhere to the same rigorous guidelines to those of pipelines carrying hazardous liquids such as crude oil. The USDOT Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) has regulations and requirements for the safe operating and emergency preparedness and response for CO2 pipelines, and the agency continues to review and update its CO2 pipeline safety standards.

The third-party CO2 storage operator that YaREN selects will use new, purpose-built pipelines to transport the CO2 captured at the YaREN ammonia plant to the storage facility. Extensive and continuous monitoring of the pipeline, including pressure data from sensors along the pipeline and implementation of a robust integrity program, will help ensure that any potential issues are identified and addressed early before they become more serious. Strong emergency response plans that will include input for first responders, regulators, local officials, and others will be put into place by the pipeline operator selected by YaREN to mitigate, reduce, or eliminate the potential for negative impacts on people and the environment from an incident.

In 2020, a CO2 pipeline ruptured near Satartia, Mississippi. The pipeline near Satartia ruptured due to a landslide, caused by weeks of heavy rain. While dozens received medical attention at a hospital, no deaths or major injuries occurred. Even so, this incident resulted in careful examination of current regulations and guidelines for CO2 pipeline construction and operation. Prior to that incident, only one injury and no fatalities related to CO2 pipeline operations were reported in the U.S., according to PHMSA statistics.

In response to the Satartia incident, PHMSA conducted a thorough failure investigation to learn what went wrong in order to improve future safety of CO2 pipelines. PHMSA has commenced a formal rulemaking, which will address the issues that PHMSA identified in its failure investigation and other operational and maintenance safety issues relevant to all phases of CO2 transportation via pipeline. Key topics of the rulemaking include emergency preparedness, notification, and response.

PHMSA also issued an advisory bulletin reminding pipeline operators to consider integrity issues that may be caused by geohazards (e.g., rugged or steep terrain or changing geologic conditions) and changing climate (e.g., heavier than normal rainfall that may saturate or erode soils).

Additionally, the pipeline operator selected by YaREN will work closely and proactively with local emergency responders and will undertake public engagement efforts to increase awareness and planning for what to do in the unlikely event that a CO2 release occurs. This early engagement with local emergency responders and the public will further ensure the safety of the CO2 pipeline.

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